Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an space of 27,925 sq. miles. The colony of Sierra Leone originated within the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a bit of land meant as a house for African settlers who had been waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on twenty first August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on twenty seventh April, 1961 and have become a Republic in 1971. Training is offered by each non-public and state-sponsored colleges. The present system of training is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Main faculty, three years Junior Secondary Faculty, 4 years Senior Secondary Faculty and 4 years tertiary/greater training. This technique is complemented by non- formal training.
CONCEPT OF EDUCATION
Training is ceaselessly used within the sense of instruction within the classroom, laboratory, workshop or home science room and consists principally within the imparting by the trainer, and the acquisition by pupils, of knowledge and psychological in addition to guide expertise. A wider which means than instruction is that of education. That’s to say all that goes on throughout the faculty as a part of the pupil’s life there. It contains, amongst different issues, relationship between pupils and lecturers, pupils and pupils each in and out of doors the varsity. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that no matter helps to form the human being; to make the person what he’s or hinder him from being what he isn’t is a part of his training. Implicitly training is lifelong and ubiquitous; it’s the sum complete of all influences which go to make an individual what he’s, from start to demise. It contains the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.
Training is to some extent a deliberate deliberate course of devised and performed by the educator with the aim of imbuing the learner with sure info, expertise, of thoughts and physique in addition to modes of habits thought of fascinating. Partially it’s the learner’s personal response to the atmosphere wherein he lives. Training has three focal factors: the person/individual upon whom the educator’s influences are dropped at bear; the society or group to which he belongs; and the entire context of actuality inside which the person and society play their half. Man is a social creature; he grows as an individual by the influence of persona on persona; and even for his primary bodily wants he is determined by the assistance and cooperation of his fellow women and men. With out society and the mutual assist and enrichment of experiences which it supplies civilization is inconceivable and the lifetime of man, in Hobbes’ phrases, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and quick.”
One of many elementary info of human existence is the stress between the pull of the previous and the ahead urge into the longer term, between stability and alter, custom and innovation. For efficient residing,man wants a circle of safety, an space of established habits and relationship which kinds reliable relationships. That is additionally true of society. For its efficient functioning there have to be an underlying continuity of traditions and outlook which preserves its identification as a society and safeguards it in opposition to the disruptive results of change. Change have to be for all times and never static however this alteration in flip have to be managed by the fundamental traditions of society. It’s custom which supplies a nation its character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of custom due to this fact is clearly essential.
It has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional training has an important half to play within the growth of the kid. The youngsters of at present are the adults of tomorrow; they have to be educated due to this fact, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and modes of life peculiar to the actual society to which they belong. For each society has the will to protect itself not solely bodily however as group consciously sharing sure goals, beliefs and patterns of habits. This sort of training is just not essentially formal in colleges by way of classroom instruction however that effected not directly by the household and thru the influence on the person of social influences and customs which the kid can’t evade. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance wherein younger women and men should show themselves worthy of the group. The last word aim was to supply a person who was sincere, respectful, expert, cooperative, and who might conform to the social order of the day. As Aristotle as soon as said “the structure of a state will undergo if training is uncared for. The residents of a state ought to all the time be educated to swimsuit the structure of the state. The kind of character acceptable to a structure is the ability which continues to maintain it as it is usually the state power which initially created it” (p. I).
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETY
Conventional training has each a inventive and conservation perform in society; it’s a highly effective technique of preserving a society’s customs, if not tradition. Prior to now the character and desires of society performed an important half in figuring out the character of training. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) as soon as wrote in his ebook, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the tutorial system will are likely to mirror the social sample, whereas social uneasiness and instability create alternative for utilizing training as an instrument of social change”(p.7). An identical view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that by training society can formulate its personal functions, can set up its personal means and assets and thus save itself with definiteness and economic system within the path wherein it needs to maneuver. Training seems each to the previous and the longer term; inevitably it displays the traditions and character of society. Conventional training can be utilized to organize for modifications in society and anticipate and stop modifications or the consequences of modifications in society.
Conventional training conserves and fingers on the customs and methods of life which represent the character of a society and maintains its unity. It additionally helps society to interpret its capabilities in new methods to fulfill the challenges of change, in search of methods or traces of growth that are per the traditions and customs and can on the similar time increase society to a extra full success of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Historical past reveals that there have been no formal colleges the place youngsters had been educated in Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies had been regarded upon as establishments to coach youngsters. They had been bush colleges. And the training these bush colleges offered was casual. Youngsters who went by these secret societies had been thought of able to finishing up their civic duties. They turned adults and might marry and begin life. They thought of themselves as one household. In different phrases each Secret Societies created a way of comradeship and unity amongst members no matter household, clan or ethnic affiliation. It was due to this fact thought of that youngsters who had not gone by these secret societies weren’t absolutely matured.
The Poro Secret Society is for boys. The religious head of the Poro Society is Pa Gbonu, seen solely by the older graduates or members. The bodily heads are the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the actions of the establishment. The senior instructors are the Pa Kashis, who usually train and provides directions to different initiators. The Pa Manchiyas function lecturers to the initiates whereas the Kachemas are the scaring spirits. They scare the ladies and youngsters alike along with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages round. The Yambas are the top boys. The Bomos are the senior prefects whereas the Sayboms are the prefects; and the displays are the Gbanaboms. Casual courses are held within the Secret Poro Bush. The topics taught embody Inventive Sensible Arts, Performing Arts, Sensible Agriculture, Drugs i.e. use of native herbs for the remedy of various illnesses), warfare and different expertise. In Inventive Sensible Arts initiates are taught the right way to make fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wooden and cleaning soap stones into completely different objects akin to animals and people; in Performing Arts initiates are taught singing, dancing and the usage of Poro musical devices. In Sensible Agriculture initiates follow farming. Boys are taught to bear hardship with out criticism and develop accustomed to it. Thus they’re taken to the farms of their lecturers and elders to work on professional bono foundation. Nonetheless in the course of the harvest season initiates might cross by these farms taking no matter they want and eat with out being questioned by farm homeowners. Initiates are taught to respect elders and use of weapons to kill animals. In an analogous vein initiates are taught the right way to use weapons in preventing in protection of their communities. Different expertise initiates are taught embody making fish traps, fishing and looking internet, and basketry. In the usage of herbs initiates pay cash (some freely given) for therapeutic varied sicknesses in addition to for cover in opposition to enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who need to trigger hurt to others utilizing herbs might ‘redeem’ the herb/medication involved. Over all initiates are taught a brand new Language spoken solely by members referred to as Ke Sornor. For instance fonka trika which means I’m speaking to you; fonka bonomi which means Discuss to me. Using this new Language makes graduates very proud and really feel completely different from non-initiates. Graduates come out with new names akin to Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A commencement ceremony climaxes the occasion.
Mother and father make large preparations together with stitching attire for the graduates. To mark the commencement ceremony there may be feasting, consuming, dancing and singing reward songs for the graduates and their dad and mom. These certified for initiation will need to have been circumcised and grown to age of puberty. They need to stay on their very own in the course of the interval of coaching which ranges from one to seven years. Graduates are absolutely admitted to the final Poro society by one other ceremony referred to as Enkorie, which lasts for 4 days.
The Bondo/Sande Society is the establishment the place women are educated for womanhood. Its religious head is Na Bondigba. The Na Gboyamas and Na Wulus are the bodily heads. These have religious powers used to predict the longer term and catch witches. They’re the senior lecturers. The Na Sokos are the service lecturers. They’ll provoke women even as much as the superior stage of the Society. The Digbas are the final lecturers and keep near the initiates. The Sampas are the skillful dancers and errand women/girls. They make bulletins concerning the progress and actions or applications in the course of the commencement ceremony.
The Na Fets, because the identify implies have no idea all of the secrecy of the establishment. They carry the institutional implements and regalia. The Karr Ayeamus are the ‘waiters’ to be initiated into the upper standing of the establishment. Women admitted to the Bondo/Sande Society are educated informally. Courses are held at Kantha or sacred dwelling. The lecturers are largely involved with the transmission to those adolescent women the abilities and information which grownup girls are anticipated to own as a way to perform correctly and intelligently of their group. The topics women are taught embody Cooking, Performing Arts, Fishing, Husband and Youngster Care, and Dwelling Administration. In Cooking women are taught the right way to put together meals by statement and participation within the preparation of assorted dishes and are later allowed to have a go together with little or no supervision. Those that couldn’t prepare dinner correctly are allowed to repeat. In Performing Arts women are taught the right way to compose and sing songs and the right way to beat the Bondo/Sande drums (sambories). Alongside singing women are taught the right way to dance and those that dance nicely could be a part of the hierarchy of the Sampas. Women are additionally taught the right way to fishing, make fishing nets, fishing baskets, sleeping mats from bamboo and palm leaves. Additional women are taught the right way to assist their potential husbands and the right way to deal with youngsters particularly these of senior members. Just like the Poro Society commencement ceremonies are marked by large preparations. Each dad and mom and potential husbands would purchase new attire, slippers, perfumes, powder, and beads to make neck laces. On the day of the commencement ceremony the brand new initiates are arrayed in white with coronets. They arrive out with new names akin to Burah, Yeanor, Rukor and Yainkain. This demonstrates an indication of maturity. Initiating women into Bondo/Sande society lasts between just a few months and three years.
If training has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering atmosphere, and of elevating them to richer and extra fruitful expression then each the Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies, as conventional brokers of this course of ought to get pleasure from a place of the best esteem. Via these secret societies the nation’s tradition flows from one era to the opposite and the aspirations of society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. They stand at some extent the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic potentialities. Via these secret societies youngsters bear in mind the previous actions of their predecessors. They assist in behavioral coaching patterns of society. These societies are establishments of inspiration and each politicians and chiefs use them to benefit. That’s to both acquire or keep energy. Main and binding choices are taken within the Poro Bush of which solely members are allowed to attend and participate. The Poro Secret Society acts as a examine in opposition to the abuse of energy. In disaster ridden conditions main determination are taken within the Poro Bush. The Poro society even acts as arbitrator in chiefdom disputes and will promulgate normal legal guidelines and regulate buying and selling practices. It is usually concerned within the burial of chiefs and different necessary native officers (Alie, 1990).
Western training has existed within the nation for lengthy and is now so integral a part of the civilized life that there’s a tendency to imagine that it’s the major or sole technique of imparting expertise, information and social values in youngsters. This isn’t the case in Sierra Leone. The significance of the Poro and Bondo conventional secret societies can’t be over-sighted due to their monumental potentiality in educating youngsters for all times in society. Basic is that respect for individuals as individuals is the idea of conventional society. Linked with that is courtesy, sensitivity to the wants of others, cooperativeness, self-discipline, ethical and bodily braveness, arduous work and excessive requirements of accomplishment. These are handed on to youngsters within the atmosphere wherein they’re a part of their each day experiences. However, these conventional establishments as brokers of training are at the moment confronted with many challenges there-by forcing their demise. The follow of feminine genital circumcision is of worldwide concern and in Sierra Leone persons are agitating for its complete ban. At present women are allowed to be circumcised at age eighteen throughout which era a baby is perceived to be matured sufficient to decide on whether or not or to not be initiated into the Bondo/Sande secret society. As well as the interval of initiation is perceived too lengthy and is being challenged. Apart from youngsters lately not need to be initiated into these societies to be taught the right way to be clear, prepare dinner, rear youngsters, follow agriculture, and inculcate morals and virtues to quote just a few examples. All these could possibly be learnt both in or exterior formal education by studying. What’s extra Faith, particularly Christianity and Islam, western life, in addition to rural-urban migration are forcing these secret societies to obliteration.
Apart from the actions and work of those conventional societies usually are not in curriculum type and documented. Neither is also the usage of herbs documented. Subsequently by discontinuing these conventional secret societies Sierra Leoneans stand to lose their cultural heritage. If nevertheless, training has the important perform of perpetuating the traditions and values of society, of adapting them to a altering atmosphere, and of elevating them to a richer and extra fruitful expression then these conventional secret societies, as brokers of this course of ought to get pleasure from a place of the best esteem. Via these societies the nationwide tradition flows from one era to a different and the aspirations of society are centered with intimate and telling persuasion upon the younger. These secret societies stand on the level the place the energies of youngsters are launched into new and artistic potentialities.